While I understand Género Alejandro Moreno Ramirez’s need to be taken seriously as an artist, it is a shame that his chosen media makes him a bit defensive.
Many artists and artisans cross the very fuzzy lines among fine art, folk art and handcraft, often enriching all of the various pursuits. Famous examples include Diego Rivera’s inclusion of folk art images in his paintings as well as patronizing several artisans whose work he admired.
Many artisans take artistic training as part of their professional development. And there are many who consider themselves to be both artists and artisans both for artistic as well as economic reasons.
But there is tension between the idea of “serious art” and “just handcraft.” It is even worse when said handcraft is associated as women’s work, especially that of housewives.
Textile art is nothing new. The fine tapestries of the Middle Ages are considered to be art with no discussion. But it is true that the Western concept (at least) of true art is intimately tied with painting and sculpture in stone or wood.
Fine art, folk art, and handcrafts all have elements of creativity and craftsmanship to them. Artists need to master technique as much as cabinet makers do. Fine furniture makers, whether consciously or not, need to have an aesthetic sense. The distinction among the three is how it is judged by the culture… focusing on a message or feeling or more focused on execution of technique.
In cases where both become important, we get the concept of folk art. There are cases in Mexico where handcraft designs make their way to a two-dimensional “canvas.” The best example of this is the amate paper paintings done by the Nahua people of Guerrero, who took traditional designs from their pottery to develop intricate works of art on a new medium.
The problem for textile techniques is that 1) it is associated with women at home “wasting time” and 2) the resulting work of art is not as durable as paintings. Many paintings centuries old survive to this day. The same cannot be said for tapestries, no matter how well valued. Time is not kind to plant fibers without layers of paint to help preserve them.
Be this as it may, textile is a fascinating medium which invites the study of how technique and imagination interact. Paint has limited variables, allowing for artists to tame it readily. The same cannot be said for fibers and dyes (especially natural ones). Even the best of weavers and dyers will have imperfections in their work. Those imperfections can be seen as a defect in the medium or an opportunity.
Only a true artist can see opportunity.
Moreno is not from an artist or artisan family, but like most artists discovered his passion for drawing and other creating in early childhood. However, his road to his artistic vocation has been somewhat convoluted. He is currently finishing his studies in visual arts at the local university, but he studied and experimented with various paths before then. These included traditional painting, graphics and fashion design, found that none of them suited his talents and interests exactly. There is absolutely no tradition of textile arts in Durango, but Moreno was fortunate enough to discover the field in Guadalajara.
He was worked with various techniques but has settled to two main ones, the dying of fabrics with natural materials and embroidery. Much of his inspiration comes from a number of Japanese textile techniques as well as western ones. Dying is with a heavy cotton material called manta, which is colored with natural materials specifically to create “imperfections.” The main technique is to take materials found in Mexico such as marigolds and cochineal insects, press them into the fabric and prompt the dying through the use of steam. This creates a series of stains in subtle colors. These stains become the basis and guide for the embroidery that is then applied. He mostly uses commercial embroidery thread for this, most likely because it provides a counter to the unconstrained coloring of the background. The goal is to create an image that is both expressive and harmonious.
What is fascinating about Género’s work is that it is indeed art. However, its artistic value comes from both expression and fine craftsmanship. It would not work any other way. It straddles the world of arte and artesanía in a way that the amate paintings cannot. In Genero’s work, all the media used is respected. In the case of the amate paintings, the paper is dominated by the painting. The paper is not respected in the same way. The initial idea to use it came from its ease in transportation and sale of such painting to tourist markets. The paper does give the paintings a folk art and ancient feel, but it appears more as a frame for the painting, rather than an integral part of the work.
Género’s work has value for both art and handcrafts, giving both new directions to explore. It brings back the artistic element of the tapestry to needlework.
(Photos from the artist’s Instagram account used with permission)